The Taming of the Shrew

“Thou must be married to no man but me,
For I am he born to tame you, Kate
And bring you from a wild Kate”

—The Taming of the Shrew, by William Shakespeare: Act II Sc i. 277

A friend once described me as “a shrew longing to be tamed”. Whilst I thought the “shrew” bit an egregious slur on my soft, sweet feminine nature, I confess that I found the “longing to be tamed” bit surprisingly perspicacious for a man. (Oops, that just slipped out!)

Perhaps it will come as no surprise, therefore, to learn that my favourite Shakespeare play is The Taming of the Shrew, the one that not even the venerable Royal Shakespeare Company now dares to interpret correctly. They do, however, admit that “a recent box office survey suggests that it is Shakespeare's second most popular play with audiences at the RSC.”

My guess is that this popularity owes very little to the current RSC production directed by Gregory Doran. As I watched this production in Stratford Upon Avon recently, I found myself wondering whether anyone involved had actually bothered to read the play and think about what it means. I was amazed by their misinterpretation. Women go to see The Taming of the Shrew because they are intrigued by the idea of Petruchio, the main male character, who is calm, confident, determined, and dominant, without having to appear intimidating or bullying. The RSC's current Petruchio is a bumbling, weak, incompetent fool who appears to fail entirely to tame the shrew, the title of the play notwithstanding. In 1988, Jonathan Miller said:

I think it's an irresponsible and silly thing to make that play into a feminist tract. It is not simply the high jinks of an intolerably selfish man who was simply destroying a woman to satisfy his own vanity, but a sacramental view of marriage.

And indeed, the production I recommend is the 1980s BBC TV one by Jonathan Miller. It is available on DVD and video in America, and (dramatically cheaper when I last looked) from the RSC online store in England. It is exquisite, full of famous faces, and stars John Cleese, of all people, as Petruchio.

In this masterful interpretation, Cleese is hilariously witty, as one would expect, but he is more than that. He manages to capture the full richness of Petruchio's character so well that even if you are not interested in The Taming of the Shrew, this production is worth seeing just for the evidence that Cleese is a phenomenally good actor. His Petruchio woos Katherina, the shrew, with gentleness and good humour backed by total confidence and a little highly politically-incorrect force at times. It never seems to occur to him that Kate might get the better of him, even when she is resisting most loudly and angrily. When at last she submits, he is tender and loving with her, and the passion between the two is evident.

To tempt you to consider seeing this fabulous production, here are some of my favourite lines from the play. Notice Katherina's sharp wit at the beginning... then read her final speech:

Petruchio says:

You lie in faith, for you are called plain Kate,
And bonny Kate, and sometimes Kate the curst:
But Kate, the prettiest Kate in Christendom,
Kate of Kate-hall, my super-dainty Kate,
For dainties are all Kates, and therefore Kate,
Take this of me, Kate of my consolation,
Hearing thy mildness praised in every town,
Thy virtues spoke of, and thy beauty sounded,
Yet not so deeply as to thee belongs,
Myself am moved to woo thee for my wife.

The dialogue continues with Kate replying:

Moved, in good time, let him that moved you hither
Remove you hence: I knew you at the first
You were a movable.

Petruchio: Why, what's a movable? [One who is easily moved]

Kate: A joint stool [A stool made by a craftsman]

Petruchio: Thou hast hit it: come sit on me.

Kate: Asses are made to bear, and so are you. [“to bear” means to carry passengers, and also carry children i.e., she is taunting him by calling him an ass and a woman]

Petruchio: Women are made to bear, and so are you [bear children plus support a man during sexual intercourse]

Each time Katherina snaps at him, Petruchio ignores her snapping and mildly calls her “sweet Kate, gentle Kate” and tells her that he is going to marry her. Here is another fun bit:

Petruchio: Come, come you Wasp, y'faith you are too angry

Kate: If I be waspish, best beware my sting

Petruchio: My remedy is then to pluck it out

Kate: I, if the fool could find it where it lies

Petruchio: Who knows not where a Wasp does wear his sting? In his tail. [note the “tail” pun!]

Kate: In his tongue?

Petruchio: Whose tongue?

Kate: Yours if you talk of tails, and so farewell.

Petruchio: What with my tongue in your tail. Nay, come again, good Kate, I am a Gentleman,

Kate: That I'll try.

She strikes him.

Petruchio: I swear I'll cuff you if you strike again.

And so the banter goes on, witty riposte after witty riposte. Undeterred, Petruchio says:

I find you passing [i.e., very] gentle:
'Twas told me you were rough, and coy [i.e., disdainful], and sullen,
And now I find report a very liar:
For thou art pleasant, gamesome [i.e., spirited, fun], passing courteous,
But slow in speech: yet sweet as spring-time flowers.
Thou canst not frown, thou canst not look askance,
Nor bite the lip, as angry wenches will,
Nor hast thou pleasure to be cross in talk:
But thou with mildness entertain'st [i.e., receive] thy wooers,
With gentle conference [i.e., conversation], soft, and affable.
Why does the world report that Kate doth limp?
Oh slanderous world: Kate like the hazel twig
Is straight, and slender, and as brown in hue
As hazelnuts, and sweeter than the kernels:
Oh let me see thee walk: thou dost not halt [i.e., limp]

After yet more banter, Petruchio concludes:

Marry so I mean sweet Katherine in thy bed:
And therefore setting all this chat aside,
Thus in plain terms: your father hath consented
That you shall be my wife; your dowry agreed on,
And will you, nill you [i.e., whether you like it or not], I will marry you.
Now Kate, I am a husband for your turn [i.e., suitable for you],
For by this light, whereby I see thy beauty,
Thy beauty that doth make me like thee well,
Thou must be married to no man but me.
For I am he am born to tame you Kate,
And bring you from a wild Kate to a Kate
Conformable as other houshold Kates:
Here comes your father, never make denial,
I must, and will have Katherine to my wife.

[...]

Petruchio: Father, 'tis thus, your self and all the world
That talked of her, have talked amiss of her:
If she be curst, it is for policy,
For she's not froward, but modest as the Dove,
She is not hot, but temperate as the morn,
For patience she will prove a second Grissell,
And Romane Lucrece for her chastity:
And to conclude, we have agreed so well together,
That upon Sunday is the wedding day

Kate: I'll see thee hanged on Sunday first.

Gre: Hark Petruchio, she says she'll see thee hanged first!

Tra: Is this your speeding? nay then goodnight our part.

Petruchio: Be patient gentlemen. I choose her for myself,
If she and I be pleased, what's that to you? '
Tis bargained twixt vs twain being alone,
That she shall still be curst in company.
I tell you 'tis incredible to believe
How much she loves me: oh the kindest Kate,
She hung about my neck, and kiss on kiss
She vied so fast, protesting oath on oath [i.e., kissed me for every kiss I gave her],
That in a twinkle she won me to her love.
Oh you are novices, 'tis a world to see
How tame when men and women are alone,
A meacocke [i.e., cowardly] wretch can make the curstest shrew:
Give me thy hand Kate, I will go unto Venice
To buy apparel 'gainst the wedding day [i.e., in anticipation of the wedding day].
Provide the feast father, and bid the guests,
I will be sure my Katherine shall be fine.

On their wedding day, he firmly takes control. A wedding feast has been prepared, but Petruchio announces that he and Kate will not be staying for the feast. To which Kate replies:

Do what thou canst, I will not go today,
No, nor tomorrow, not till I please myself,
The door is open sir, there lies your way,
You may be jogging while your boots are green:
For me, I'll not be gone till I please myself.

But as she is about to march off defiantly to the wedding feast, Petruchio holds her back, saying:

They shall go forward Kate at thy command, [...]
But for my bonny Kate, she must with me:
Nay, look not big, nor stamp, nor stare, nor fret,
I will be master of what is mine own.

To the others at the wedding, Petruchio explains:

She is my goods, my chattels, she is my house,
My houshold-stuff, my field, my barn,
My horse, my ox, my ass, my any thing,
And here she stands, touch her whoever dare,
I'll bring mine action on the proudest he that stops my way in Padua:
Grumio Draw forth thy weapon, we are beset with thieves.
Rescue thy Mistress if thou be a man:
Fear not sweet wench, they shall not touch thee Kate,
I'll buckler thee against a Million.

In the final scene, Kate valiantly defends their relationship in this classic monologue:

Thy husband is thy Lord, thy life, thy keeper,
Thy head, thy sovereign:
One that cares for thee,
And for thy maintenance.
Commits his body
To painful labour, both by sea and land:
To watch the night in storms, the day in cold,
Whilst thou liest warm at home, secure and safe,
And craves no other tribute at thy hands,
But love, faire looks, and true obedience;
Too little payment for so great a debt.
Such duty as the subject owes the Prince,
Even such a woman oweth to her husband:
And when she is frorward, peevish, sullen, sour,
And not obedient to his honest will,
What is she but a foul contending Rebel,
And graceless Traitor to her loving Lord?
I am ashamed that women are so simple,
To offer war, where they should kneel for peace:
Or seek for rule, supremacy, and sway,
When they are bound to serve, love, and obey.
Why are our bodies soft, and weak, and smooth,
Unapt to toil and trouble in the world,
But that our soft conditions, and our hearts,
Should well agree with our external parts?
Come, come, you forward and unable worms,
My mind hath bin as big as one of yours,
My heart as great, my reason happily more,
To bandy word for word, and frown for frown;
But now I see our Lances are but straws:
Our strength as weak, our weakness past compare,
That seeming to be most, which we indeed least are.
Then vale your stomachs, for it is no boot,
And place your hands below your husband's foot:
In token of which duty, if he please,
My hand is ready, may it do him ease.

UPDATE: Adam, of singlesouthernguy.com, describes the above article as:

a quite delicious exploration of one of the most loved Shakespearean pieces of all time, The Taming of the Shrew. [M]y personal favorite version is the Richard Burton/Elizabeth Taylor film.

Thanks, Adam! However, I fear I must take issue with you on the Burton/Taylor version. Burton's Petruchio is a most unattractive drunken lout who shouts altogether too much and has no finesse and no subtlety whatsoever. He might as well have been playing a gladiator in one of those 1960s gladiator films. I had the distinct impression that Burton and Taylor were simply playing themselves, fighting non-stop, instead of playing Shakespeare's characters. That is not a compliment! It was tiring and uninteresting to watch, and horribly dated, I thought, what with the dreadful singing and other music. What am I missing?

the boss

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Comments

Taming and shrews

If you're not a shrew, do you need taming? If you are a shrew, are you tameable? Hmmmm............

Frustration in the lack of strength of her man

It seems to me a shrew is born out of her frustration in the lack of the strength of her man to hold her under his thumb, to make her want to serve him with delight rather than demand her compliance to the point of resentfullness.

Katharina

This is actually why I am called Kat today. I was doing a search for "submission" on a Shakespeare site, and came across this speech, altered a bit to Katharine, and it eventually got shortened to Kat. Thanks for sharing these bits of the play...a wonderful piece.

MamaKat

Agreement

I have also seen the BBC production of Taming.... It is indeed surprising how good an actor John Cleese is, and how strong the main character is portrayed. Strongly recommend the play—well worth the effort to get the BBC version especially.

Thanks for sharing!

I wish to thank those who have sat through less good productions to bring us the recommendations you bring us! I saw another DVD is available on Amazone. Any comments about that one?

Vague recollections

I recall a black and white film in which Taming of the Shrew was being performed by the protaganist and his wife/girl in which he puts her over his knee and spanks her on stage, but which isn't supposed to happen.

Can anyone help me with what the film was called?

Kiss Me Kate

"Kiss Me Kate" is an adaptation of "Taming" in which the couple are actors on the verge of divorce and they are playing Kate and Petruchio in a stage production of "Taming". It's so funny. My fiance and I, as well as my sister and her husband, took my parents to a dinner theater production of "Kiss Me Kate" for their 31st wedding anniversary. My fiance didn't know there was a spanking scene in it and when it happened I think his face just lit up.

Also if anyone ever watched The Anna Nicole Show, Anna Nicole did a scene from "Taming" with Danny Bonaducci at a theater workshop. It was the scene with the wasps sting etc.

Peace,
Daisy

There are two ways of spreading light: to be the candle or the mirror that reflects it.--Edith Wharton

question

Could you give me help on the comic devices used by Shakespeare in the Taming of the Shrew??? I mean, I know he uses puns (most of which I do not understand) and mistaken identities, but there must be more. No? Please help...

The Taming of the Shrew

Did you know that in about 1604 John Fletcher wrote a play called 'The Woman's Prize, or the Tamer Tamed' in which, Katherine having died, Petruchio marries Maria, who is an altogether tougher cookie. She locks him out of the house on their wedding night and further humiliates him until he is thoroughly subdued, suggesting that even in the 17th century, 'Taming of the Shrew' wasn't taken that seriously!

Taming of the Shrew

I just remembered the 1929 version, with divine Douglas Fairbanks Snr and Mary Pickford. In this version, Kate is shown overhearing Petruchio boasting of how he plans to tame her, and you see her looking absolutely livid, then her expression changes as she realises she can manage him much better by playing along with him than by fighting him. At the end when she 's doing that 'woman moved' speech, and all the other women are seething, you see her nod significantly to them behind Petruchio's back, and they get what she's indicating and nod back. For all I know, that may be how Shakespeare intended it to be played.

Taming of the Shrew and comments by Louise C

These sound like the comments of someone who feels the play is more interesting with an extra twist at the end, or wishes to defend "women's supremacy," but, in my experience, she sounds like a woman who has never been taken to the "submission" stage. Obviously fascinated with the idea of [consensual] male domination, [else she would never be posting here]... but still [perhaps subconsciously] looking for that submission to be TAKEN from her. If this is so, I must say that I hope she experiences it... I have seen that stage in a woman's emotions... many times... and am always amazed at how much joy it gives... and how loved and contented they feel.
[For good reason, because any man worth the name will feel intense love for a woman he has "Taken in Hand" and who has repaid his loving domination and discipline with the intense love that women feel when they have fully submitted.]

The Taming of the Shrew

It's a comedy. It's meant to be funny. I have doubts about exactly how seriously it was meant to be taken at the time, especially in view of the 'sequel' written by John Fletcher, only a few years after the 'Shrew' which sends the earlier play up gloriously. Shakespeare must have known plenty of non-submissive women, after all he performed before Queen Elizabeth,. and she wasn't exactly docile, was she? I mean, I know the IDEAL throughout most of history has been the docile, submissive wife, but the reality ahs often been far different, as you can see by looking at life and literature. For every Katherine there's a Maria. For every Patient Griselda there's a Wife of Bath. For every Eleanor of Castile there's an Eleanor of Aquitaine. Do you know that absolutely marvellous passage in 'Oliver Twist' where Mr Brownlow tells Mr Bumble, who has pleaded that his wife was guiltier than he in the matter of concealing evidence"You are the more guilty of the two in the eye of the law, for the law supposes that your wife acts under your direction" "If the law supposes that" says Mr Bumble "the law is a ass—a idiot. If that's the eye of the law, the law's a bachelor: and the worst I wish the law is, that his eye may be opened by experience—by experience." And what about that terrific bit in "Three Men in a Boat" where Jerome K. Jerome is looking at the scold's bridle in the church and remarks "They used to use those things in olden times for curbing women's tongues. They have given up the attempt now. I suppose iron was getting scarce, and nothing else was strong enough."

Re: Frustration in the lack of strength of her man

I agree that "a shrew is born out of her frustration in the lack of the strength of her man." For many years I was in a relationship with a man who was POSSESSIVE of me but who was unable or unwilling to POSSESS me. To me this is the worst combination, where due to his feeling of not having power (or his refusal to take ownership of and responsibility for his power) a man expresses negative, jealous control without erotic love and passion and leadership. It is Thanatos instead of Eros. It leaves out all the good, juicy stuff that makes a woman want to submit. It is profoundly, maddeningly frustrating. It is the stuff of which shrews are made.

Taming of the Shrew

I, too, loved this play, for the strength of character shown by Petruchio. Part of me wishes I could find a man who wis strong enough and felt secure enough in a relationship with me to say to me "Nay, look not big", and catch me before I lose my temper. (I don't want to be spanked; I just want to be caught and prevented, by someone who loves me enough to do so.)
For genuine "Taming" fans, try "10 Things I Hate About You"; a present day version. I love the show, but I often wish Kat's father had been taken in hand by someone. Or at least given a back bone.

10 Things I hate about You

I thought this was a very funny film. The father was my favourite character, his obsession with the possibility that his daughters might get pregnant was hilarious. The hero of '10 things' is much nicer than Petruchio though. Petruchio is basically a bully and a thug. It's a source of great satisfaction to me to know that he eventually gets his comeuppance in 'The Woman's Prize'!

Shrew Taming

As a Dominant MAN I won't be doing any shrew taming.

If you want your Dom to wear the pants, you've got to wear the skirt—let Him Dominate you & follow & serve Him like a good sub. A SHREW is not a good sub.

You won't be doing any shrew taming?

Speaking as something of a shrew myself, I can only say, that's all right with me. Frankly I doubt you could tame a gerbil, let alone a shrew.

I agree!

The 1980 production of TotS with John Cleese and directed by Jonathan Miller is, by far, the best production I've ever seen of that play on the screen or at the theater.

When it was originally broadcast on PBS, there were interviews with Miller and Cleese afterward, which sadly are lacking from the DVD. It was a refreshing view (in my mind) about how poor Katarina is ignored by her father in favor of the lovely Bianca. Well, I'd be shrewish too!

Although Petrucchio may have first considered Kate's hand because of the sizable dowry, I see their interest and sparks grow into love deep and genuine by the time she gives her famous speech. Kate remains a strong and opinionated woman (I think Petrucchio wouldn't want a mousy woman) but she submits to him with love. He's probably the first person in her life to love her and not merely tolerate her, or run in fear from her.

I just know they're going to have the fun and wonderfully intimate marriage unlike the lovely Bianca or the Widow, who are the REAL shrews. I love Shakespeare's way of showing us who the real shrews are.

I just discovered this website and find it very informative and positive. I am considering DD for the first time and thank you for the helpful and thought-provoking articles as I explore a new chapter in my life.

Real shrews

Personally, I like Bianca's brisk exchange with her husband at the end of the play, when he whines at her for having lost him his bet by not coming at his command "The wisdom of your duty, fair Bianca, hath cost one hundred crowns since suppertime"
"The more fool you for laying on my duty." she replies, and I want to cheer, it's the first flicker of spirit she has shown in the course of the play. She, unlike Katherine, won't be made a spectacle of in public, and quite right too.

Bianca goes on to greater things in 'The Tamer Tamed' when she urges on Maria, Petrucchio's second wife, in her rebellion against tyrany, and mans the barricades with her against Petrucchio.

As for them not having much fun in their marrages, who knows, the husbands of Bianca and the widow may find it's more fun to be married to women of spirit than to a doormat.

Reply to Real Shrews

Quote "As for them not having much fun in their marrages, who knows, the husbands of Bianca and the widow may find it's more fun to be married to women of spirit than to a doormat."

A doormat??? Are we talking about the same character? The mighty Kate that had the whole of her father's household, nay the city, in fear of her displeasure? You must be speaking of some other play.

The mighty kate

But, at the end of 'The Taming of the Shrew' the mighty Kate seems to have lost all her spirit, and is grovelling to her husband in the most abject manner. If you take what she says seriously, then she does seem to me to have been completely crushed. Of course, she might just be having him on, as she is shown as doing in the 1929 film version with Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford, where Pickford is nodding to the other women behind Fairbanks's back, and they get it and nod back.

But, if taken seriously, the idea that the brutal approach is the best way to 'tame' a woman is dubious to me. "The idea that you can tame an hysterical bitch by treating her rough is not one with which many psychologists would agree" as Nicholas Bentley remarked in his 'Tales from Shakespeare'. Petrucchio batters Katherine until she is too tired to do anything except submit to him. This might make very good knock-about comedy, but as a serious recipe for making a woman feel Taken In Hand, it would not work for me.

If my husband had started depriving me of food, sleep, etc as a means of making me more submissive, it would not have worked, I don't know whether there are any women reading this site who have been 'tamed' by this rather brutal method, but this is not an approach that would appeal to me at all.

"Shakespeare Retold"

I wonder if anyone saw the BBC's 'retold' version of the Shrew earlier this year, I think it was. Shirley Henderson and Rufus Sewell were the main actors. There were some funny bits about it—they made him into a transvestite, as though they felt they had to gender-bend things slightly to make it acceptable, for instance. But there were really good things about it, too. Shirley H. was just crackling (as a beyond-Widdicombe Tory MP told to get married to help her career) and there was a lot of sexual agression and tension between the couple.

Perhaps what was best though, and most interesting from our point of view, was that in Kate's final speech she says, not as a broken woman but proudly, evangelically even, that she'd kneel (I think it was) if told to by her husband, and that other women should obey their husbands, too. Perhaps it was an attempt to show Kate as "not a victim", which would be quite a PC approach, I guess—but she ended up sounding very Taken in Hand.

Telling other women

Katherine telling the other women that they should obey their husbands is one of the most unappealing aspects of The Taming of the Shrew, and modern women in Taken In Hand or DD reltionships do seem to be quite prone to do this. A Taken In Hand relationship is a very personal thing, not something that should be thrust down the throats of other women. Being lectured about how they should treat their husbands is not something that goes down well with most women, and the other ladies in 'Taming of the Shrew' are quite rightly annoyed when Katherine has a go at them. "Lord, let me never have a cause to sigh, Till I be brought to such a silly pass" as the widow quite rightly observes.

Louise

Personally, I have never read

Personally, I have never read the Taming of the Shrew, even though I am a Shakespeare fan. I will say though that this play does bring a stirring in me.

It is so hard to describe how I feel about my walk. I definitely feel that I am a shrew. I have a mouth on me that goes beyond simply being opinionated. I am a spoiled little brat at times, and I need to be tamed by a strong man.

I need him to grab me when I am misbehaving and pull down my pants in a proper spot, whether that be at home or behind a alleyway and blister my ass.

Knowing full well that when we do get to the bedroom he will pin my hands down and take me very passionately. Reminding me of who I am to him and why.

~Portia~

One thing that is missing for me..

Perhaps it was just the production we did in college (which was GOD awful, i must say) but i've read this play over and over, and also performed it....but for me it always seems like there is a scene missing. Perhaps because our version didn't have chemistry between the two, or it just wasn't apparent, but it seems like the whole time, Kate is fighting him tooth and nail and then BAM! she does a 180 and becomes "Tamed"....and i have never honestly seen the "aha" moment where this happens. And is she mocking his dominance or is she truly Tamed? In the beginning it does seems as if Petruchio is only after her Dowry, and he doesn't care about her he will do whatever it takes to get it and be financially secure. So when, in your opinion, does he fall in love with her?

I know that this is an old thread, but i do hope to get some answers. :)

thank you!

The Taming of The Shrew

Sorry Wenchy that I cannot answer your particular questions on this old but fascinating thread, but something I do wish to share with those of a like mind to appreciate it...

"But sun it is not, when you say it is not; And the moon changes even as your mind. What you will have it named, even that it is; And so it shall be so for Katharina."

The healed Kate in Shakespeare's Taming of the Shrew

Am I the only one on here who finds the healed Kate's words particularly beautiful and moving at the deepest level? Never having read or seen the play, and unawares as to the differing interpretations and debates /controversies surrounding it until after I had read the boss's beautiful and detailed celebration of it and the many interesting and informative replies thereto, and even I confess never having read them at all until tonight when I read them on here...

Nevertheless when I did read them they spoke deeply to me in a voice of unashamed, unreserved, forthright and joyful submission born of love for the one submitted to...a resolute determination to forego semantics and even the facts of cosmology, the evidence of her very eyes even, for the sake of obedience to him and to that overwhelming love alone able to cause such a resolute and complete change of course, such a casting off of her barren defiance in favour of a loving, freely and joyfully given submission. And the whole beautiful act sealed as it were with an almost eternal stamp of promise, "And so it shall be so for Katharina."

I could not hear these words spoken except in the spirit of submission and in the voice of deepest love and respect, others I know have felt differently (negatively/cynically) but that I feel is their loss and not for me to debate, life is too short and yes beauty is in the eye of the beholder, but as the boss perceptively remarked in her appreciation of the lovely film Secretary, if you approach it in the right spirit...

"And the moon changes even as your mind. What you will have it named, even that it is"

Peace and love and respect to you all.
Hardy A

healed or crushed?

it depends how you look at it I suppose. you see Kate as healed, I see her as simply so browbeaten that she just gives in to Petruccio for the sake of peace and quiet. she is bullied into submission. her submission is not freely and joyously given, Petruccio breaks her spirit by refusing to allow her to eat or sleep, she gives in out of exhaustion. it is not love that makes her declare that the sun is the moon, it is Petruccio's threat to take her back home again if she won't agree.

re "healed or crushed"

That's a shame that you see it that way Louise, being a fictional character we can of course never ask Kate, we can I suppose only draw what we will from her tale. I just see beauty in the healed Kate's words, believing that the genius who wrote them intended them to be spoken in an honesty which alone would comfort, appeal to and inspire those prepared to be so moved by them. So to me she was healed.

Best wishes,
Andy